MESOPOTAMIA, Ancient Map of

バビロニア文明 1  BABYLONIAN 1 石川源晃著

バビロニアシュメールという言葉よりも人々に親しまれた言葉です。しかし、通俗的に使用されるバビロニア時代に比較して正確なバビロニア王国の時代は短期間です。古代シュメール時代が 何年前から存在したのかは正確には判明しませんが、現在発掘された約9000年前のジャルモの文化生活を示す 遺跡refの整った状況を見れば、古代シュメール人は約一万年前にすでに近隣諸国との通商貿易を 行う裕福な社会を形成したと考えられます。紀元前2350年(約四千五百年前)に、アッカド (今のバクダット近郊)のサルゴン一世に征服されて、約5千年以上も継続した平和な商業民族シュメール人の支配が終了するのですが、バビロニア 王国がバビロンを首都として建国するのは、それよりもさらに後の、紀元前1830年(約四千年前)のことです。
The word Babylonia has been much more familiar to the people than the word Sumerian. Contrary to the familiarity of the word Babylonia, the actual regime of Babylonian kingdom in the city of BABYLON was much shorter than the range of years that the most people have told on the Babylonian era briefly defined. We do not know the oldest year that the ancient Sumerian had initiated their rich trade life, however, the evidences of high class life style excavated at Jarmo ref have enough to suggest that they were already active in their trade and commercial business with surrounding countries since at least ten thousand years ago. In the year 2350 BC or forty five hundred years ago approximately, the Sargon First of Akkad city or the place near Baghdad Iraq had conquered the Sumerian regime and the era of Sumerian of peaceful trade life in some five thousand years was terminated. It was however much later than the era of the Sargon family when the Babylonian kingdom was established; that was 1830 BC or about four thousand years ago.

バビロニア王国では、文化が興隆し現在の各国法律の基準になる282条の整った条文のハムラビ法典が ハムラビ王(紀元前1728−1686年)(約三千八百年前)により施行されました。アッシリア帝国の侵略 を受け、バビロニア王国は紀元前726年(約三千年前)に滅亡します。紀元前625年(約二千七百年前)には メソポタミアに新バビロニア王国が出現します。新バビロニア王国では、占星学の研究がカルデア人により 行われたので有名です。カルデア人は古代シュメール人を滅ぼしたセム人の子孫ですから、古代シュメール人の占星学 を実践に適用したのです。
High cultural civilization has risen in the kingdom of Babylonia. The CODE of Hammurabi that consisted from neatly arranged text of 282 provisions was made public in the era of king Hammurabi crowned in 1728 BC or about thirty eight hundred years ago registered. This code is famous as this is the standard example of nowadays laws in many countries.The kingdom of Babylonia has terminated its regime in 726 BC by the invasion of Assyrian Empire. New Babylonia was established in 625 BC or twenty seven hundred years ago approximately. Chaldeans or a member of ancient Semitic people that defeated the ancient Sumerian became dominant in New Babylonia. Therefore, the study of astrology that was originated by the ancient Sumerian has risen in this era. The name of Babylonia that has been familiar to the most people of nowadays world in the history of astrology has come from the articles prepared by the Chaldeans in New Babylonia released.

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